ICT-ENSURE Information System on Research Programmes in the Field of ICT for Environmental Sustainability

ICT-ENSURE Information System on Research Programmes in the Field of ICT for Environmental Sustainability ICT-ENSURE Information System on Research Programmes in the Field of ICT for Environmental Sustainability European Commission: ICT for Sustainable Growth European Commission CORDIS Seventh Framework Programme KIT - Karlsruhe Institute of Technology Graz University of Technology, Knowledge Management Institute International Society for Environmental Protection
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BIOTEKA The search for new bio-fuel components and investigation of second generation bio-fuel production technolgies (Naujų biokuro komponentų paieška ir antrosios kartos biodegalų gamybos technologiniai tyrimai)
Optimal compositions of oils and fats LSA25-GR75 ir JA35-GR65 can be a source of standard methyl esters as components of biofuels suitable for use in (...)
Optimal compositions of oils and fats LSA25-GR75 ir JA35-GR65 can be a source of standard methyl esters as components of biofuels suitable for use in Lithuania, at least during summer period.
Industrial waste including starch B fraction, carbohydrates, protein-rich media and whey, were found to be proper components of feed media for bacteriak growth. Those compounds could be successfully converted to energy-rich and valuable components of new biofuels simply by microbiological fermentation-based processes. Problems were faced concerning cultivation of anaerobic Clostridium bacteria for effective production of biobutanol during fermentation of starch-rich feed-stock. Those bacteria were found to be extremely sensitive for butanol and genomic information of those is complex and not easy to manipulate. „Solide substrate fermentation (SSF)“ was shown to be successfully applied for large-scale processes providing reduced price of industrial fermentation and enhanced profitability of those processes. High financial investitions and prolonged periods are necessary in order to reach economically reasoned degree of butanolic fermentation. Screening for alternative microorganisms potential to synthesize butanol and various higher carbons was started using environmental samples. This research could help to create systems for synthessis of second generation biofuels. New object are started to test for expression of genes responsible for biobutanol synthesis. Their resistance for n-butanol and composition of second metabolites in growth media were investigated, and next step for cloning of few genes of that stystem was done. Environmental samples are highly potential as future sources of unique microorganisms directed to produce actual compounds. eDNA gene banks are started to construct at BAC and phagemidic vectors and those are potential to enabel gene expression from environmental DNA.
The usage of butanol in Otto engine showed that consumption of fuels was higher in proportion with enhancing amount of butanol in the mixture. Optimal composition of the mixture consisted of 70% petrol and 30% butanol. The same proportion of the mixture components is the best for effective use in diesel engine.
Investigation of oils transesterification with 1-butanol catalyzed by 3 lipases showed that highest yield of esters (72%) was reached in Resinase HT lipase-catalyzed reaction when converting rapeseed oil. Various oil emulsions were transesterified with 1-butanol by different lipases in different efficiency and combinations for highest yields of products are recommended as follows: camelina and linseed oils emulsified by GLY SMO or pure rapeseed oil for Resinase HT lipase; camelina and linseed oils emulsified by ENE CO5 or GLY SMO and pure or emulsified by the same emulsifying agents rapeseed oil for Resinase A2X lipase; E13 (Enterobacter aerogenes) lipase was inactivated by most emulsifyers, consequently pure oils are recommended rather to be used in the case except camelina oil that was better converted if emulsified by ENE 6P9. Immobilized lipase were analysed in a number of directed reaction. Rapeseed oil was hydrolysed in highest degree by polyurethane (PU)-linked Resinase HT (fatty acids yield 62±5%). That sample was the most active also in transesterification of pure rapeseed oil (esters yield 49±1%) and of all oils emulsified by ENE 6P9 with 1-butanol. The activity of the sample was also the highest in esterification of glycerol with oleic acid and in transesterification of oils with glycerol. So Resinase HT lipase immobilized on porous carrier is perspective for valuable product-directed reactions. Soluble Resinase HT lipase rather efficiently catalyzed short-term esterification of 1-butanol with medium chain capric acid (yield of butyl ester 54%). Directed esterification reaction was shown to be more suitable for butyl ester synthesis than transesterification of triacylglycerols. 62% of butyl oleates was synthesized by the lipolytic enzyme during 96 hours but long reaction was unfavourable due to following hydrolysis of the oleates. In summary, relatively cheap commercial lipase Resinase HT that is thermally resistant, stable at broad pH interval and feature other properties attractive for industrial application but was directed only in pulp and paper industry, could be successfully used for biofuel production.
Technical analysis showed that it‘s enough to clean biogas from H2S up to 20-40 ppm concentration for use in next processes. So one step way for H2S removal can be applied. Periodical pirolysis should be carried out at optimal conditions like: duration – 1-1.5 hours, temperature – 550°C, oxygen flow – 1.12 L/min, amount of one load of sawdust from deciduous trees – 0.39 kg, density – 240 kg/m3, moisture – 15%. It was determined that the larger volume of production the lower cost of synthesis gas. Consequently, synthesis gas can compete with natural gas in Lithuania.
Synthesis gas obtained from carbon is cheaper by 20-29% comparing to the gas produced from converted feed-stock but second generation biofuels produced from such gas could not be as renewable. 3672.1 Nm3 of biogas or 2 t of feed-stock and 2260 Nm3 of biogas should be consumpted to produce 1 t of Fisher-Tropsh diesel.
Heterogeneous adsorbents MDEA/Cact and MEA/Cact can replace liquid adsorbents in agregates for biogas conversion to synthesis gas. Cost of such process is lower. Stable dynamic volume of MDEA/Cact for CO2 was 9–10 mg/g and that parameter of MEA/Cact was 20–22 mg/g. Adsorption process was slow. Amount of adsorbed CO2 was in continuous reduction with enhancing temperature from 25 to 55oC. Regeneration of adsorbents should be provided at temperature higher than 60oC. Parameters and compositions of catalysts for exotermic conversion of biogas were recommended. Catalysts are necessary to be thermally resistant at temperature range of 1000–1100oC and be composed at combination with 6–18% (w/w) active additive NiO. Possibilities to use regenerated catalysts previously used for metane conversion were discussed.
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